Bilingual Terms – Roots 4

January 15, 2008  
Filed under Uncategorized

121 ?? Rhizoma Dioscoreae Cirrhosae Shouliahg Yam Radix Root
122 ??? Radix Polygoni Cillinervris Hairynereve Polygonum Root Tuber; Hairyvein Knotweed Root Tuber
123 ??? Radix Stephaniae Cepharanthae Oriental Stephania Root
124 ?? Rhizoma Coptidis Chinese Goldthread Rhizome
125 ?? Rhizoma Coptidis Deltoideae Deltaleaf Goldthread Rhizome
126 ?? Rhizoma Coptidis Teetoidis Yunnan Goldthread Rhizome
127 ??? Rhizoma Coptidis Omeiensis Omei Goldthread Rhizome
128 ??? Radix Thalictri Foliolos Manyleaf Meadowrue Root
129 ??? Radix Seu Herba Thalictri Sibirici Siberian Columbine Meadowrue Root or Herb
130 ??? Radix et Rhizoma Clematidis Chinensis Chinese Clematis Root and Rhizome
131 ????? Radix et Rhizoma Clematidis Hexpetalae Sixpetal Clematis Root and Rhizome
132 ????? Radix et Rhizoma Clematidis Mandshuricae Manchurian Clematis Root and Rhizome
133 ??? Radix Seu Herba Clematidis Floridae Cream Clematis Root or Herb
134 ??? Radix Pulsatillae Chinese Pulsatilla Root
135 ??? Rhizoma Anemones Raddeanae Radde Anemone Rhizome
136 ???? Rhizoma Anemones Dichotomatis Dichotomous Anemone Rhizome
137 ??? Radix Semiaquilegiae Muskroot-like Semiaquilegia Root
138 ?? Rhizoma Cimicifugae Foetidae Skunk Bugbane Rhizome
139 ??? Rhizoma Cimicifugae Heracleifoliae Cowparsnipleaf Bugbane Rhizome
140 ??? Rhizoma Cimicifugae Dahuricae Dahurian Bugbane Rhizome
141 ??? Radix Ranunculi Ternati Catclaw Buttercup Root Tuber
142 ?? Radix Paeoniae Alba White Peony Root
143 ?? Radix Paeoniae Rubra Rad Peony Root
144 ??? Radix Paeoniae Veitchii Veitch Peony Root
145 ???? Radix Paeoniae Sinjiangensis Sinjiang Peony Root
146 ?? Radix Scrophulariae Figwort Root; Ningpo Figwort Root
147 ?? Radix Rehmanniae Adhesive Rehmannia Root Tuber
148 ??? Rhizoma Picrorhizae Figwortflower Picrorhiza Rhizome
149 ????? Rhizoma Picrorhizae Kurrooa Indian Picrorhiza Rhizome
150 ?? Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae Root of Twotooth Achyranthes;Common Achyranthes
151 ??? Radix Cyathulae Root of Medicinal Cyathula; Medicinal Cyathula Officinalis Root
152 ??? Radix Achyranthis Sylvestris Wild Achyranthes Root
153 ??? Radix Carpesii Abrotanoidis (?????????) Common Capesium Root
154 ??? Rhizoma Corydalis Yanhusuo Yanhusuo Tuber
155 ????? Rhizoma Corydalis Turtschaninovii Toothedpetal Corydalis Tuber
156 ??? Rhizoma Corydalis Decumbentis Decumbent Corydalis Tuber
157 ?? Radix Seu Herba Corydalis Edulis Common Corydalis Root or Herb
158 ?? Radix Corydalis Pallidae Yellowflower Corydalis Root
159 ??? Radix Berchemiae Lineatae Lineate Supplejack Root
160 ?? Radix Seu Cortex Rhamni Utilis Chinese Buckthorn Root or Root-bark

Period pain hurts? Try Chinese herbs

October 19, 2007  
Filed under Uncategorized

CM NEWS – Got enough of that terrible period pain? Traditional Chinese medicine might offer hope for relief, according to a large scale review on the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine on primary dysmenorhoea.

What is dysmenorrhoea? Dysmenorrhoea is a very common complaint that refers to painful menstrual cramps in abdomen. Primary dysmenorrhoea refers to pain of an unknown cause (i.e. no medical condition is identified). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or the contraceptive pill have been used successfully for treatment but more women are looking for non-drug therapies. Read more

New TCM formula fights male immune infertility

May 17, 2007  
Filed under Uncategorized

CM NEWS – A Chinese medicinal formula, Huzhangdanshenyin (?????), derived by researchers in Xiamen, China has been proved more effective than corticosteroids in targetting male immune infertility – but without the side effects of steroids.

What is male immune infertility? Sperm are relatively protected from the immune system by a natural protective mechanism called the blood-testes barrier. Tight connections between the cells lining the male reproductive tract keep immune cells from gaining entry to the sperm within. If an injury breaches this barrier, then the immune system has access to sperm and antibodies are formed.

Antisperm antibodies have been reported in approximately 10% of infertile men, compared to less than 1% of fertile men. The prevalence of antibodies jumps dramatically in men who have had surgery on their reproductive tract: nearly 70% of men who have undergone a vasectomy reversal will have antibodies present on their sperm. Women have a much lower chance for developing antibodies to sperm: less than 5% of infertile women can be shown to have antisperm antibodies, and it is unclear who is at risk for their formation.

Who is at risk for antisperm antibodies?

Anything that disrupts the normal blood-testes barrier can result in the formation of antisperm antibodies. This may include any of the following conditions:

  • Vasectomy reversal
  • Varicocele (dilation of the veins surrounding the spermatic cord)
  • Testicular torsion (twisting of the testicle)
  • Congenital absence of the vas deferens
  • Testicular biopsy
  • Cryptorchidism (failure of testicular descent)
  • Testicular cancer
  • Infection (orchitis, prostatitis)
  • Inguinal hernia repair prior to puberty

The study done at the Department of Andrology, Xiamen TCM Hospital Affiliated to Fujian TCM College selected 90 men with immune infertility and randomly divided them into two groups: 60 in the treatment group, treated by Huzhangdanshenyin, and the other 30 in the control, treated by prednisone, both for 3 months.

What is prednisone? Prednisone is a synthetic corticosteroid drug which is usually taken orally but can be delivered by intramuscular injection and can be used for a large number of different conditions. It has a mainly glucocorticoid effect. Prednisone is a prodrug that is converted by the liver into prednisolone, which is the active drug and also a steroid.

Prednisone is particularly effective as an immunosuppressant and affects virtually all of the immune system. It can therefore be used in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases (such as severe asthma, severe poison ivy dermatitis, ulcerative colitis, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Crohn’s disease), various kidney diseases including nephrotic syndrome, and to prevent and treat rejection in organ transplantation. This medicine may also reduce the sex drive.

Huzhangdanshenyin was derived these researchers. The formula includes:

Hu zhang (??) 15g

Pu gong ying (???; Herba Taraxaci Mongolici cum Radice, dandelion) 15g

Zi cao (??, radix arnebia, stoneweed) 15g

Huang qi (??, Radix astragali) 15g

Dan shen (??, Salvia miltiorrhiza, or Chinese sage) 15g

Chi shao (??, root of common peony) 15g

Dang gui (??, Radix Angelicae sinensis, roots of Chinese angelica) 15g

Hong hua (??, Flos Carthami Tinctorii) 10g

Shou wu (??, Radix Polygoni Multiflori, Chinese knotweed) 15g

Nu zhen zi (???, Fructus Ligustri Lucidi, privet fruit) 15g

Sheng di (??, Rehmannia Radix) 15g

Xian ling pi (???, Herba Epimedii, epimedium) 15g

The researchers then observed the subjects’ improvement of clinical symptoms, immunologic indexes (antisperm antibodies in serum and seminal plasma) and sperm indexes (semen liquefied duration, motility, viability, density and abnormal morphology rate).

How do antisperm antibodies cause infertility?

Antibodies that attach to the sperm may impair motility and make it harder for them to penetrate the cervical mucus and gain entrance to the egg; they may also cause the sperm to clump together, which is occasionally noted on a routine semen analysis. Antibodies may also interfere with the ability of the sperm to fertilize the egg.

What treatments are available for antisperm antibodies?

Suppressing the immune system with corticosteroids may decrease the production of antibodies but can result in serious side effects, including severe damage to the hipbone. Intrauterine insemination, with or without the use of fertility medications, has been used for the treatment of antisperm antibodies. It is believed to work by delivering the sperm directly into the uterus and fallopian tubes, thus bypassing the cervical mucus.

The total antisperm antibody reversing ratio of the treatment group was higher than that of the control (P < 0.01), especially the serum antisperm antibody reversing ratio. There were significant differences in the clinical cure rate and total validity rate between the treatment group and the control (P < 0.01).

After the treatment, the markers of the clinical symptoms were lower (P < 0.01), and the improvement of the clinical symptoms was better in the treatment group than in the control (P < 0.01), especially the symptoms of pain in the back and knees, distending and bearing-down sensation of the perineum and testis, hypersexuality and topoalgia.

Compared with pre-treatment, sperm motility and viability of the treatment group significantly improved (P < 0.01), and so did sperm density (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in sperm density, semen liquefied duration, abnormal morphology rate and pH (P > 0.05) before and after the treatment.

In conclusion, the study says Huzhangdanshenyin works more effectively than prednisone in the treatment of male immune infertility. It could improve the antisperm antibody reversing ratio, clinical symptoms and signs and ameliorate sperm indexes with no obvious advierse effects.

[Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2006 Aug;12(8):750-5; Chinese text here.]

Ancient formula Qiongyugao may fight liver cancer

January 28, 2007  
Filed under Uncategorized

fu ling, liver cancer, qiongyugaoCM NEWS – An ancient Chinese herbal formula composed mainly of ginseng (??), poria (fu ling, ??) and rehmannia (di huang, ??) has been found to be able to slow down the growth of tumour of the liver and inhibit the expression of a special protein that appears to participate in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, the most common form of primary liver cancers.

The current study about Qiongyugao (???) was carried out by researchers at the Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Medical College, Jinan University, Guangzhou.

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of qiongyugao on the expression of hepatitis B x antigen (HBxAg) in BALB/c-nu mice (picture) into which human hepatic carcinoma cells were transplanted, and to analyze its specific mechanism in prophylaxis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Increasing evidence suggests that the viral contribution to hepatocellular carcinoma involves persistently high levels of the virus-encoded X antigen, or hepatitis B x antigen (HBxAg), in the liver of chronically infected patients. High levels of intrahepatic HBxAg expression directly correlate with the intensity of liver disease. HBxAg transforms cells in vitro, whereas sustained high levels of HBxAg in transgenic mice are associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting that HBxAg plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this tumour type.

In the present study, a nude mouse model with the transplantation of human hepatic carcinoma cells was established to observe the preventive and therapeutic effects of Qiongyugao on the body weight and tumour weight of the mice. The expression of HBxAg in tumour and liver tissue wsa detected by immunohistochemical studies.

RESULTS: Compared with model control group, prophylaxis and treatment with Qiongyugao increased the body weight, depressed the tumour weight and inhibited HBxAg expression. The same efficacy was shown in both Qiongyugao prophylaxis group and cyclophosphamide treatment group.

CONCLUSION: Qiongyugao can slow down the growth of tumour and inhibit the expression of HBxAg, which may be an essential mechanism in prophylaxis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

[Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi (??????????). 2007 Jan;23(1):56-9.]

Glossary

January 28, 2007  
Filed under

Banxia, ?? (pinellia rhizome)
stops vomiting, promote vomiting, rids of phlegm nodules, calming, lower pressure in the eyes.

Cangzhu, ?? (atractylodes lancea Thunb., A chinensis Koidz.)
The main content of cang zhu includes hinesol, ?-eudesmol,atractylodin and atractylon. The functions of cang zhu are: for treatment of yeast infection and dries dampness and flatulence; strengthens digestion; expels wind-dampness; for diarrhea with vomiting; edema with fullness of the abdomen; induces sweating in patients unable to sweat; headaches, body aches, solar plexus pain, and pain in extremities due to wind-cold-dampness, and edema in lower limbs etc. Modern research also shows that it can lower blood sugar and expel sodium.
(Source: Dictionary of Chinese herbs)

Dahuang, ?? (Rheum officinale Baill.)
To treat: lack of bowel movement, dysentry, blood clots, tumour, red and painful eyes, abdominal-distention and/or pain, blood in stool, hemorrhoidal bleeding, urination burning, nose bleeding, coughing out blood, sore extremities, edema, jaundice, lesions, burns and scalding (external application).
(Source: Dictionary of Chinese herbs)

Danshen, ?? (Salviae miltiorrhizae)
Salvia (Chinese danshen ??) refers to the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, sometimes described as Chinese sage or red sage root. Any herb of the Salvia genus may be called sage, but most people are familiar with the common garden plant-and the common Western kitchen herb-obtained from Salvia officinalis. There are significant differences in medicinal components of the tops and roots of the Salvia plants that influence their uses. The Western sage leaves are used medicinally to treat dyspepsia and excessive perspiration. Salvia root, as employed in Chinese medicine, is different in nature from the other sage herbs, despite the botanical relationship.

Danshen is an annual sage plant, Salvia miltiorrhiza (Labiatae, Laminaceae) which grows in China, Mongolia, Korea and Japan. In China, it is found in hilly areas of the west, southwest and southeast. S. miltiorrhiza is among the most popular medicinal herbs used in China. It has been used in the treatment of stroke since 1970, angina and heart attack, as an antihypertensive and a sedative. S. miltiorrhiza contains several compounds that are pharmacologically active, especially the diterpenoids known as tanshinones. A related plant, Salvia columbariae, from California, USA also contains tanshinones, especially cryptotanshinone. This plant has been used by Californian Indians to treat people suffering from strokes.
(Source: MDidea; Chinese Medicine Journal)

Danggui, ?? (Radix Angelicae sinensis, Chinese angelica root)
Danggui has been used as a tonic for blood and for regulating the menses, lubricates bowels to correct constipation, reduces swelling, expels pus, relieves pain. Danggui wei (tail) is being used in condition of blood stasis and clots.
(Source: Dictionary of Chinese herbs)

The medicinal functions include: nurturing the uterus; lowers blood lipids, anti-platelet coagulation, promotes production of red cells; dilates coronary arteries and improve circulation volume; anti oxidation and rid of free radicals; improves the immune system; serves as an anti-cancer agent; and anti inflammatory.

Dihuang, ?? (Rehmannia)
Dihuang is being used as a blood tonic, usually for treating weakness caused by tuberculosis, vomiting blood, nose bleeding, coughing blood, bleeding in the uterus. Medium dosages of di huang may strengthen function of the heart, while large doses could be toxic. It could also increases blood pressure, other medical functions include: small doses constrict the blood vessels and large doses dilate the blood vessel; diuretics; decreases blood sugar and inhibits carbohydrates to convert into blood sugar.
(Source: Dictionary of Chinese herbs)

Dilong, ?? (Pheretima)
Pharmaceutical name is Lumbricus. Its major functions are said to be: anti-histamine and calming asthma; expand bronchi; antipyretic; sedative and anti-convulsion; lower blood pressure; diuretic effect. The main applications include treatments for high fever and spasms, convulsions; painful joints due to arthritis and paralysis; heat type of wheezing/asthma; injuries and pain; edema and difficulty in urination.
(Source: Dictionary of Chinese herbs)

Dongchong xiacao, ???? (Cordyceps sinensis, Caterpillar Fungus)
The mushroom species Cordyceps sinensis is an insect parasitizing fungus of the ascomycetes family, found at high altitudes on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. This fungus lives primarily in the larvae of one particular species of moth, Hepialus armoricanus.

A kind of mold, Cordyceps sinensis spawn invades into the body of a silkworm which is an insect and grows, multiplies making the protein of the insect its source of nutrition and makes the host insect a mummy. Passing by winter, Cordyceps sinesis forms a fruit body in the epidermis of the insect at the time when a temperature and a humidity becomes high and it becomes a mushroom. Cordyceps sinensis is mysterious mushroom like this.It is occasionally found growing on other moth species as well. The normal range of this fungus is above 2000 metres elevation, and it has been found as high as 6000 metres. There are also many other species of the genus Cordyceps, which all seem to have potent biologically active compounds present. The genus has been shown to produce some potent antibiotics, immune stimulants and antitumour agents.

It has only been in the last few years however that Science has had the ability to thoroughly analyze this mushroom, and identify the bioactive compounds present.

Cordyceps sinensis has long been used in folk medicine throughout Asia. It has been used as an important nourishing tonic. Other functions include: improves auto-immune system; protects kidneys from toxins; protects kidneys from exhaustion; protects liver from toxins and treats and prevents cirrhosis of liver; protect the heart from the damaging effect of ouabain ; anti-arrhythmia; anti-rejection effect in cornea transplant; antibiotic effect; and inhibits contraction of smooth muscles.
(Source: Dictionary of Chinese herbs)

Duhuo Jisheng Tang, ?????
The basic ingredients for this traditional formula include:
duhuo ?? (Radix Angelicae Pubescentis) 12g
jisheng ?? (herba visci) 20g
duzhong ?? (cortex eucomiae) 12g
niuxi ?? (Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae) 12g
xixin ?? (Chinese wild ginger) 3g
qinjiao ?? (Radix Gentianae Qinjiao) 12g
fangfeng ?? (Radix Saposhnikoviae divaricatae) 12g
gandi ??20g
baishuo ?? (Radix Paeoniae alba) 12g
danggui ?? (Radix Angelicae sinensis) 12g
chuanggong ?? (Radix Ligustici Chuanxiong) 12g
dangshen ?? (codonopsis root) 12g
yunling ??12g
yaocao ??6g
guizhi ?? (cinnamon twig) 6g
(Source: Dictionary of Chinese herbs, Gov of Macao’s glossary)

Fuling, ?? (poria, sclerotium of tuckahoe, china root, hoelen)
Functions: diuretics, reducing plasma glucose, tranquilizing, inhibits bacteria, relaxing effect on smooth muscles, improves immune system.
(Source: Dictionary of Chinese herbs)

Fufang, ??
Fufang in Chinese herbal medicine means a formula comprising multiple herbs.

Ginkgo biloba, ??
Ginkgo ( Ginkgo biloba ) is one of the oldest living tree species and its leaves are among the most extensively studied botanicals in use today. Unlike many other medicinal herbs, ginkgo leaves are not frequently used in their crude state, but rather, in the form of a concentrated, standardized ginkgo biloba extract (GBE). In Europe and the United States, ginkgo supplements are among the best-selling herbal medications and it consistently ranks as a top medicine prescribed in France and Germany.

Ginkgo has been used in traditional medicine to treat circulatory disorders and enhance memory. Scientific studies throughout the years lend support to these traditional uses. Emerging evidence suggests that GBE may be particularly effective in treating ailments associated with decreased blood flow to the brain, particularly in elderly individuals. Laboratory studies have shown that GBE improves blood circulation by dilating blood vessels and reducing the stickiness of blood platelets.

Ginkgo leaves also contain two types of chemicals (flavonoids and terpenoids) believed to have potent antioxidant properties. Antioxidants are substances that scavenge free radicals — damaging compounds in the body that alter cell membranes, tamper with DNA, and even cause cell death. Free radicals occur naturally in the body, but environmental toxins (including ultraviolet light, radiation, cigarette smoking, and air pollution) can also increase the number of these damaging particles. Free radicals are believed to contribute to a number of health problems including heart disease and cancer as well as Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. Antioxidants such as those found in ginkgo can neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause.
(Source: University of Maryland Medical Centre)

Gouteng ?? (Uncaria rhynchophylla)
Uncaria rhynchophylla is an ivy-like plant, where hooks have been used for hypertension, infantile convulsion, and so on in oriental traditional medicine. The curved thorns on the stems are antispasmodic, carminative, febrifuge and hepatic. A is used in the treatment of infantile convulsions, headaches, dizziness, hypertension and apoplexy. The should not be overcooked. Medical functions include: sedative effect: lower the excitement of CNS helps treatment of epilepsy; lowering blood pressure effect (but does not cause peripheral vasodilation) but old stems without thorns do not possess the anti-hypertension effect; anti platelet coagulation.
(Source: Plants for a Future, Dictionary of Chinese herbs)

Honghua, ?? (Flos Carthami Tinctorii, Safflower, carthamus)
The flower of hong hua serves as a laxative and diaphoretic. Hong hua can be used as a diuretic and to calm the nerves and soothes hysteria. It supports the heart and liver. It helps promote circulation, dissolves clots, and can help induce menstruation. Safflower helps with post childbirth pains, stiffness and pain in joints, and internal bleeding. It can be taken hot to produce strong perspiration to remedy a cold. Pregnant women should avoid using safflower.
(Source: Raintreee Health)

Huzhang, ?? (Polygoni Cuspidati Rhizoma)
Huzhang’s medicinal functions are: anti viral; anti leptospirosis; anti fungal; relaxes the bronchial smooth muscles, expels phlegm, and suppresses asthma and cough; lower blood pressure and lipids; stops bleeding in external injuries; inhibits pain; astringent; anti inflammatory; antibiotic, like: pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureaus, moraxella (branhamella), catarrhalis, streptococcal, escherichia coli.

Huzhang has been applied on: jaundice, gall bladder stones, blood stasis with menses stoppage, yeast infection, rheumatoid arthritis, physical injuries from impacts, inflammation of the bronchi, lobar pneumonia, poisonous snake bites, scalding injuries, acute hepatitis, urinary tract infection, boils, stoppage of menses due to heat in the blood, breast cancer, menopausal bleeding disorder.
(Source: Dictionary of Chinese herbs)

Huzhangdanshenyin, ????? ()
(derived by researchers at the Department of Andrology, Xiamen TCM Hospital Affiliated to Fujian TCM College)
Huzhang (??) 15g
Pu gong ying (???; Herba Taraxaci Mongolici cum Radice, dandelion) 15g
Zi cao (??, radix arnebia, stoneweed) 15g
Huangqi (??, Radix astragali) 15g
Danshen (??, Salvia miltiorrhiza, or Chinese sage) 15g
Chi shao (??, root of common peony) 15g
Danggui (??, Radix Angelicae sinensis, roots of Chinese angelica) 15g
Honghua (??, Flos Carthami Tinctorii) 10g
Shouwu (??, Radix Polygoni Multiflori, Chinese knotweed) 15g
Nuzhenzi (???, Fructus Ligustri Lucidi, privet fruit) 15g
Sheng di (??, Rehmannia Radix) 15g
Xianlingpi (???, Herba Epimedii, epimedium) 15g

Huangbo, ?? (Phellodendro chinense Schneid.)
The main content of huang bo include: berberine (1.4%-5.8%), phellodendrine, magnoflorine, palmatine, obacunone, limonin etc. Its traditional functions are to treat vaginal bacterial infection or yeast infection, bacterial infection of the bowel, and infectious jaundice, wet and smelly groin area; spermatorrhea; night sweating and boils and sores. Modern applications include acting as an antibiotic which inhibits Staphylococcus aureaus, pnumococcus, and Shigella dysenteriae; lowers blood pressure and blood sugar, as well as being anti-Trichomoniasis.
(Source: Dictionary of Chinese herbs)

Huanglian su, ????? (Berberine)
Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from herb plants, such as Cortex phellodendri (huang bai, ??) and Rhizoma coptidis (huang lian, ??). Huang lian and huang bai have used as “heat-removing” agents. In addition, berberine has been reported to anti-inflammatory effect both in vivo and in vitro. Inflammatory is tightly related to immunity. Berberine (or plant material containing berberine) has also been documented as having anti-microbial, antitumour and anti-inflammatory properties as an oral medicine.

Huangqi, ?? (Radix astragali, astragalus root)
Medicinal functions of huang qi include: lowers blood pressure, vaso-dilation; prolongs diuretic effect; lessens proteinuria; protects liver function; regulates blood sugar.
(Source: Dictionary of Chinese herbs)

Huangqin, ?? (Scutellaria radix)
The medical functions of huang qin include: huang qin‘s ingredient baicalin can promote secretion of bile and promote movements of extra body intestines of rabbits; alkaloids of huang qin possesses antihistamine effect; baicalein has anti-toxin effect, inhibits permeability of capillaries and anti acetylcholine and anti anaphylaxis effects, it also inhibits acute asthma attack and allergenic eczema; prevents atherosclerosis; ingredient wogonin has anti hepatitis B virus effects. In modern medicine, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of wogonin have been widely used in clinical treatment of inflammatory diseases, including atopic dermatitis, hyperlipemia, and atherosclerosis. It has been reported that wogonin has the potential for therapeutic use in the treatment of atherosclerosis and restenosis based upon its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and antiproliferative activities.
(Source: Dictionary of Chinese herbs; Molecular Pharmacology Vol. 60, Issue 3, 507-513, September 2001.)

Jia wei xiao yao san, ????? (Kamo-shoyo-san, a 700-year-old formula)
Kami-shoyo-san consists of 10 medicinal herbs, including chai hu (??, Radix Bulpleuri), bai shao (??, Radix Paeoniae), dang gui (??, Radix Angelicae Sinensis), and gan cao (??, Radix Glycyrrhizae), bo he (??, Mentha haplocalyx), fu ling (??, Poria cocos), mou dan pi (???, Paeonia suffruticosa), ?? (Gardenia jasminoides), and ginger (Zingiber officinale). In Taiwan, its concentrated form was the most popular herbal drug for depression and anxiety and alike disorders. It is also a popular herbal drug to treat insomnia in Japan.

The formula first appeared in Song Dynasty (between 960 and 1279 AD.) in a TCM classic He Ji Ju (???????). It was said to relieve muscular pain, dizziness, uneasiness, hot flashes, extreme sweating, insomnia, decreasing appetite and abnormal menstrual symptoms. In modern times, it has been used to treat many neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as liver diseases.

Literature shows that the formula has been shown to relieve panic attacks, anticipatory anxiety and agoraphobia. It has been used to treat irregularity of menstruation and anxiety involved with a menstrual cycle.

When used as an adjunct to carbamazepine (carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizing drug, used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. It is also used to treat schizophrenia and trigeminal neuralgia) in patients with bipolar disorders, the Kamo-shoyo-san combo treatment resulted in significantly greater clinical response rate in depressed patients. Kamo-shoy-san has proved to provide additive beneficial effects in bipolar patients, particularly for those in the depressive phase.

Leigongteng, ??? (Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f., Radix Tripterygium wilfordii, three-wing-nut)
Leigongteng can be used for anti-inflammation, kills worms, resolves toxins, treating proteinuric renal disease, used as immunosuppressive agent on autoimmune diseases. Modern applications include proliferative arthritis, inflammation of spinal cord, lupus, purpura, kidney inflammation, asthma, tuberculosis of the lungs, psoriasis, dermatitis and Reiter syndrome. However, lei gong teng is highly toxic and and large consumption could be toxic to the liver. Toxic reactions include: dizziness, palpitation, weakness, nausea, vomiting, stomach ache, diarrhea, pain in liver and kidney areas, bleeding in the digestive tract, even respiration and circulation exhaustion and death.
(Source: Dictionary of Chinese herbs)

Lingzhi, ?? (Ganoderma lucidum mushroom, reishi)
Língzh? is the name for one form of the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum, and its close relative Ganoderma tsugae, which grows in the northern Eastern Hemlock forests. These two species of bracket fungus have a worldwide distribution in both tropical and temperate geographical regions, including North and South America, Africa, Europe, and Asia, growing as a parasite or saprotroph on a wide variety of trees.

Ganoderma lucidum enjoys special veneration in Asia, where it has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as a herbal medicine for more than 4,000 years, making it one of the oldest mushrooms known to have been used in medicine.

According to The Chinese Herbal Materia Medica (????), lingzhi may be classified into six categories according to their shapes and colors, each of which is believed to nourish a different part of the body.

1. Red – heart
2. Purple – joints
3. Green – liver
4. White – lungs and skin
5. Yellow – spleen
6. Black – kidneys and brain

Lingzhi may possess some anti-tumour, immunomodulatory and immunotherapeutic activities, supported by some studies on polysaccharides, terpenes, and other bioactive compounds isolated from fruiting bodies and mycelia of this fungus. Lingzhi has been found to be anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti-parasitic, anti-fungal, antidiabetic, anti-hypotensive, and protective of the liver. It has also been found to inhibit platelet aggregation, and to lower blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar.

Because of these properties, lingzhi has been regarded as blood pressure stabilizer, antioxidant, analgesic, a kidney and nerve tonic. It has been used in bronchitis prevention and in cardiovascular treatment, and in the treatment of high triglycerides, high blood pressure, hepatitis, allergies, chemotherapy support, HIV support, and even for fatigue and altitude sickness.
(Source: Wikipedia)

Liu Shen Wan, ??? (“Six Spirits Pills”)
The 250-year-old formula consists of 6 herbs: niu huang (??, Calculus bovis), she xiang (??, Moschus moschiferus L.), chan su (??, Bufo bufo gargarizans antor), xiong huang (??, realgar), bing pian (??, Dryobalarops aromatica Gaertner. f.), and zhen zhu (??, pearl). The pill has been used as an anti-inflammatory agent. It also controls pain and treat symptoms such as sore throat and sensitive gums.

Longkui, ?? (Solanum nigrum Linne)
Stem and leaves possess anti-pyretic, diuretic, ridding of toxin effects; being used in treatment of acute kidney inflammation, chronic bronchitis, throat cancer, larynx Cancer, uterus cancer. Raw fresh part of plant and unripe fruit are poisonous. If eaten, the symptoms include: dilated pupils, dizziness, nausea, dry mouth and tongue, loss of ability to talk, loss of consciousness. In serious cases: spasm of the abdomen, vomiting, diarrhea, paralysis of the respiratory system and death.
(Source: Dictionary of Chinese herbs)

Moudanpi, ???, ???? (cortex moutan; root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews)
Paeonol, an effective component of Cortex Moutan, has been proved to have a variety of effects including: anti-bacteria, anti-inflammation, relieving pain, anti-sensitive, strengthening the immune system. Clinical tests prove that it can inhibit the penetration of capillary vessel, so as to diminish inflammation and remove swelling. Study also indicates that paeonol has ataractic effect against muscle tissue and skin, so it can substitute anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory medicine used in skin and mouth. Also it has unique natural mint smell, so as to remove peculiar mouth smell. And it also can reduce pain and toothache when brushing. Dispelling wind and arresting pain. It can be used as pharmaceutical material of preparations for myalgia, rheumatic pain, neuralgia, coetaneous pluribus, etc.

Nuzhenzi, ??? (Fructus Ligustri Lucidi, privet fruit)
There are two parts of nu zhen zi which are of medicinal value: the fruits and the leaves. The medicinal functions of the fruits include: regulate the immune system; anti inflammatory; anti cancer; having an effect on circulatory system; lower blood sugar; and anti oxidization.

The medicinal functions of the leaves are: resist general lack of oxygen; improve capillary circulation; and having an effect on the cardio-vascular system.
(Source: Dictionary of Chinese herbs)

Niuxi, ?? (Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae)
The main componets of niu xi are: isocyasterone, 5-epicyasterone, sengosterone, cyasterone, amarasterone A and B, capiterone, poststerone, ecdysterone and precyasterone etc.
(Source: Dictionary of Chinese herbs)

Niuxi has been used to deal with weakness and pain in loin and knees, tight and spastic limbs, irregular menses, postpartum pain in abdomen due to blood stasis, blood in urine, physical injuries and difficulty in bending knees.

Pugongying, ??? (Herba Taraxaci Mongolici cum Radice, dandelion)
Functions include: promotes bile secretion; protects liver; inhibits staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pneumoniae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, shigella spp., neisseria meningitidis, corynebacterium diphtheriae, mycobacterium tuberculosis, ECHO virus, and Leptospira; improves digestion; serves as diuretic and mild laxative.
(Source: Dictionary of Chinese herbs)

Qiong yu gao (???)
Ingredients of Qiongyugao include: ginseng, di huang (??, rehmannia), bai fu ling (???, poria), and honey. TCM texts say Qiongyugao is good for lung diseases, such as tuberculosis, and helps relieve dry coughing.

San Miao San or San Miao Wan (???, ???)
San Miao San mean “Three Wonders Powder”. The formula can be dated as far back in history as around 1500s during the Ming Dynasty. The three ingredients of San Miao San are:
(1) Cangzhu (??, atractylodes lancea Thunb., A chinensis Koidz.).
The main content of cang zhu includes hinesol, ?-eudesmol,atractylodin and atractylon.
The functions of cang zhu are: for treatment of yeast infection and dries dampness and flatulence; strengthens digestion; expels wind-dampness; for diarrhea with vomiting; edema with fullness of the abdomen; induces sweating in patients unable to sweat; headaches, body aches, solar plexus pain, and pain in extremities due to wind-cold-dampness, and edema in lower limbs etc. Modern research also shows that it can lower blood sugar and expel sodium.
(2) Huangbo (??, Phellodendro chinense Schneid.)
The main content of huang bo include: berberine (1.4%-5.8%), phellodendrine, magnoflorine, palmatine, obacunone, limonin etc.
Its traditional functions are to treat vaginal bacterial infection or yeast infection, bacterial infection of the bowel, and infectious jaundice, wet and smelly groin area; spermatorrhea; night sweating and boils and sores. Modern applications include acting as an antibiotic which inhibits Staphylococcus aureaus, pnumococcus, and Shigella dysenteriae; lowers blood pressure and blood sugar, as well as being anti-Trichomoniasis.
(3) Niuxi (??, Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae)
The main componets of niu xi are: isocyasterone, 5-epicyasterone, sengosterone, cyasterone, amarasterone A and B, capiterone, poststerone, ecdysterone and precyasterone etc.
Niu xi has been used to deal with weakness and pain in loin and knees, tight and spastic limbs, irregular menses, postpartum pain in abdomen due to blood stasis, blood in urine, physical injuries and difficulty in bending knees.

Sha yuan ji li, ????, ?? (Astragalus complanatus R. Br.)
To treat: spermatorrhea, premature ejaculation, achy loin, dizziness, frequent urination, enuresis vagina discharge, and neurasthenia.
(Source: Dictionary of Chinese herbs)

Shouwu ??, or He shou wu ??? (Radix Polygoni Multiflori, Chinese knotweed)
Shou wu has been famous for its ability to turn grey hair into “black hair (??)”. It’s also used in the treatment of hyperlipemia, neurasthenia, split personality, premature white hair, nerve injuries, skin wind rash, and constipation. Other functions include: treatment of eczema, sores, carbuncles, goiter, scrofula, inflammation of lymph nodes, spermatorrhea, vagina discharge, and vulvovaginitis.
(Source: Dictionary of Chinese herbs)

Tianma, ?? (Gastrodia elata Bl.)
The earliest account of tin ma was recorded in Shennong Bencao Jing (?????, “The Herbal Encyclopedia of Shennong”), which is considered the oldest Chinese medicine text in history. The name(s) of author(s) have been lost through time but the book is believed to be at least 2200 years old.

The encyclopedia lists tin ma as being able to “treat aching of the brain” and to “calm one’s emotion” and to help people sleep. In modern times, tin ma has been used to treat hypertension, dizziness, headache, and somatic paralysis to name a few. Tin ma is also considered to be anti-epileptic, anti-arthritic with the abilities of calming emotions (and thus depression) and soothing pain.

It is mainly produced in Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou provinces. Other producing regions include Northeast China and North China. Nowadays, wild tin ma is rare and its prices are dear. Tin ma farms are abundant in China.
(Sources: Baidu Encyclopedia, Dictionary of Chinese Herbs)

Wuweizi, ??? (Fructus Schizandrae)
Fructus Schizandrae is a deciduous woody vine and is dioecious, meaning individual plants are either male or female, thus both male and female plants must be grown. It is very tolerant to shade. Its Chinese name comes from the fact that its berries possess all five basic flavours: salty, sweet, sour, pungent (spicy), and bitter.

Medicinally it is used as a tonic and restorative adaptogen with notable clinically documented liver protecting effects. The primary hepatoprotective (liver protecting) and immuno-modulating constituents are the lignans schizandrin, deoxyschizandrin, gomisins, and pregomisin, which are found in the seeds of the fruit.

Lignans schizandrins have been found to prevent liver damage, stimulate liver repair, and stimulate normal liver functioning. Schizandrins are claimed to inhibit and even reverse the destruction of liver cells by stimulating the production of cytochrome p-450 which is a protein involved in extramitochondrial electron transport in the liver. In another study, schizandrins have scavenging effects on active oxygen radicals.

In TCM, the wu wei zi:

* stops asthmatic cough
* treats spermatorrhea
* treats chronic hepatitis
* treats night sweats
* promotes saliva
* quenches thirst
* calms emotion and palpitation
* helps prevent insomnia
* helps prevent liver damage
* help liver to metabolize drugs
* improves efficiency of brain activities
* lowers blood pressure
* as an anti-oxidant
* as a tonic for shen (kidney)
(Sources: Wikipedia, Dictionary of Chinese Herbs, Beneforce, Level1Diet,)

Wuyao, ?? (radix linderae, combined spicebush root)
A.k.a. ?????????? . Radix Linderae extract has been proved to be analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The components of Wu Yao include: lindestrene (???), lindestrenolide (????, ??????), linderenol (???), linderoxide (???), isolinderoxide (????), linderenone (???)?Wu Yao is said to have the functions of calming breathing, killing pain.
(Source: Pharmacopeia Online)

Xianlingpi, ??? (Herba Epimedii, epimedium)
Xian ling pi has been used to treat impotence, spermatorrhea, frequent urination , forgetfulness, withdrawal, and painful cold lower back and knees. It’s also used for treating lower back pain, dizziness, and menstrual irregularity.
(Source: Dictionary of Chinese herbs)

Xianhecao, ??? (Sanguisorba officinalis root)
Sanguisorba officinalis root has been used in TCM to stop bloody dysentery, nosebleeds, and is applied topically to treat burns and insect bites.
(Source)

Xiaoyao San, Xiaoyao Powder (???)
Mentha (??, Bohe) is used with white peony root (??, Baishao ) and bupleurum root (??, Chaihu) in the

Xiefengteng, ??? (Spatholobus suberectus vine)
Spatholobus suberectus is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine used to treat rheumatism, anemia, menoxenia, and other disorders.
(Source)

Yege or gegen, ??, ?? (Pueraria mirifica)
The compounds that make Pueraria mirifica so special and different from other phytoestrogen plants are miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol. These two compositions posses highest estrogenic activity among the known phytoestrogens, due to structural similarity to estradiol of the main human estrogen in women’s body.

Pueraria mirifica also contains other chemicals that belong to isoflavones, e.g. genistein, daidzein, daidzin, genistin and coumestrol that are usualy found in soybeans. However, the estrogenic activity of miroestrol is much more potent than that of soy isoflavones.

Miroestrol is the second most estrongenic plant compound on earth. Recently its metabolic precursor deoxymiroestrol has been found to be even more potent than miroestrol.

A dedicated Thai scientist who has studied the plant for over a decade was able to prove that 200mg and 100mg of Pueraria mirifica could make improvements to wide ranging menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, frustration, sleep disorder, skin dryness, high blood cholesterol, oligomenorrhoea and amenorrhea.
(Sources: Kwao Kreu Kao; What is miroestrol?)

Zhimu, ?? (Anemarrhena Rhizome)
This herb is the rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge. (family Liliaceae), grown mainly in the provinces of Hebei and Shanxi. Dug out in spring or autumn, dried in sunlight after cutting off the rootlets, sliced, and used unprepared or stir-baked with salt water. The herb has been used for treating:

(Sources: TCMedicine, Healthphone)

Zicao ?? (radix arnebia, stoneweed)
Zi cao has been used in preventing measles, jaundice, purpura, vomiting blood, nose bleeding, bleeding in the urinary tact, diarrhea with blood, boils, erysipelas, eczema, burns, and constipation.
(Source: Dictionary of Chinese herbs)

—————-
CM News’ glossary is still in the making….. You may also want to check out CMNEW”s compilation of Chinese-English terms on TCM.